Home | Research | Publications | People | Courses | About Biogeochemistry | Data & Tools | Climate Docs

Complete Publications List Books, Review Articles, Encyclopedia Entries Translations

Publications List

Hint: press Ctrl-F (PCs) or ⌘-F (macs) to search within this page for specific papers!


Where available, we have provided links to the publishers' websites and to pdf versions of open-access content, although you may have additional access options available through your institution through services such as JSTOR and Academic Search Premier.

Please contact us if you are having difficulty finding a copy of any of our publications.

Zhang, W., D. P. Swaney, B. Hong, R. W. Howarth, X. Li. 2017. Influence of rapid rural-urban population migration on riverine nitrogen pollution: perspectives from ammonia-nitrogen. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

Hong, B., D. P. Swaney, M. McCrackin, A. Svanback, C. Humborg, B. Gustafsson, A. Yershova, A. Pakhomau. 2017. Advances in NANI and NAPI accounting for the Baltic drainage basin: spatial and temporal trends and relationships to watershed TN and TP fluxes. Biogeochemistry. 133(3): 245-261.

Goyette, J., E. M. Bennett, R. W. Howarth, R. Maranger. 2016. Changes in anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the St. Lawrence sub-basin over 110 years and impacts on riverine export. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 30(7):1000-1014.

Hong, B. and R. W. Howarth. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water: heat pumps compared to most commonly used systems. Energy Science and Engineering. 4(2):123-133.

Gao, W., B. Hong, D. P. Swaney, R. W. Howarth, H. Guo. 2016. A system dynamics model for managing regional N inputs from human activitites. Ecological Modelling. 322:82-91.

Gao, W., D. P. Swaney, B. Hong, R. W. Howarth, Y. Liu, H. Guo. 2015. Evaluating anthropogenic N inputs to diverse lake basins: A case study of three Chinese lakes. Ambio. 44(7):635-646.

Gao, W., R. W. Howarth, D. P. Swaney, B. Hong, H. C. Guo. 2015. Enhanced N input to Lake Dianchi Basin from 1980 to 2010: Drivers and consequences. Science of The Total Environment. 505: 376-384.

Howarth, R. W. 2015. Methane emissions and climatic warming risk from hydraulic fracturing and shale gas development: implications for policy. Energy and Emission Control Technologies. 2015(3):45-54.

Lyon, S. W., R. Meidani, Y. van der Velde, H. E. Dahlke, D. P. Swaney, C. Mörth, C. Humborg. 2015. Seasonal and Regional Patterns in Performance for a Baltic Sea Drainage Basin Hydrologic Model. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 51(2):550-566.

Swaney, D. P., B. Hong, A. Paneer Selvam, R. W. Howarth, R. Ramesh, R. Purvaja. 2015. Net anthropogenic nitrogen fluxes from Indian watersheds: An initial assessment. Journal of Marine Systems. 141:45-58.

Zhang, W. S., D. P. Swaney, X. Y. Li, B. Hong, R. W. Howarth, S. H. Ding. 2015. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12(4):3577-3615.

Sha, J., D. P. Swaney, B. Hong, J. Wang, Y. Wang, Z Wang. 2014. Estimation of watershed hydrologic processes in arid conditions with a modified watershed model. Journal of Hydrology. 519D: 3550-3556.

Howarth, R. W. 2014. A bridge to nowhere: methane emissions and the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas. Energy Science & Engineering. 2(2): 47-60.

Caulton, D. R., P. B. Shepsona, R. L. Santoro, J. P. Sparks, R. W. Howarth, A. R. Ingraffea, M. O. L. Cambaliza, C. Sweeney, A. Karion, K. J. Davis, B. H. Stirm, S. A. Montzka, and B. R. Miller. 2014. Toward a better understanding and quantification of methane emissions from shale gas development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1316546111.

Bringezu, S., H. Schutz, W. Pengue, M. O’Brien, F. Garcia, R. Sims, R. Howarth, L. Kauppi, M. Swilling, and J. Herrick. 2014. Assessing global land use: Balancing consumption with sustainable supply. Land and Soils Working Group: International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management, United Nations Environment Program, Paris, France (See html link for details, summary, and fact card).

Begon, M., R. W. Howarth, and C. Townsend. 2014. Essentials of Ecology, 4th Edition. Wiley. 480p. In press.

Howarth, R. W. and J. Mohan (eds). 2013. Biomes and Ecosystems. Salem Press. 1440p. ISBN 978-1-4298-3813-9.

Howarth, R. W. and A. Ingraffea. 2013. Shale gas: Time to go slow. World Energy Monitor, World Energy Forum. United Nations, New York, NY. In Press.

Howarth, R. W., M. Hayn, R. M. Marino, N. Ganju, K. Foreman, K. McGlathery, A. E. Giblin, P. Berg, and J. D. Walker. 2013. Metabolism of a nitrogen-enriched coastal marine lagoon during the summertime. Biogeochemistry. doi: 10.1007/s10533-013-9901-x.

Hayn, M., R. Howarth, R. Marino, N. Ganju, P. Berg, K. H. Foreman, A. E. Giblin, and K. McGlathery. 2013. Exchange of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Between a Shallow Lagoon and Coastal Waters. Estuaries and Coasts. doi: 10.1007/s12237-013-9699-8.

Jacobson, M. Z., R. W. Howarth, M. A. Delucchi, S. R. Scobie, J. M. Barth, M. J. Dvorak, M. Klevze, H. Katkhuda, B. Miranda, N. A. Chowdhury, R. Jones, L. Plano, and A. R. Ingraffea. 2013. Examining the feasibility of converting New York State’s all-purpose energy infrastructure to one using wind, water, and sunlight. Energy Policy 57: 585–601.

Jacobson, M. Z., R. W. Howarth, M. A. Delucchi, S. R. Scobie, J. M. Barth, M. J. Dvorak, M. Klevze, H. Katkhuda, B. Miranda, N. A. Chowdhury, R. Jones, L. Plano, and A. R. Ingraffea. 2013. Response to comment on paper examining the feasibility of changing New York state’s energy infrastructure to one derived from wind, water, and sunlight. Energy Policy.

Hong, B., D. P. Swaney, and R. W. Howarth. 2013. Estimating Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs to U.S. Watersheds: Comparison of Methodologies. Environmental science technology 47(10): 5199–5207.

Gettel, G. M., A. E. Giblin, and R. W. Howarth. 2013. Controls of Benthic Nitrogen Fixation and Primary Production from Nutrient Enrichment of Oligotrophic, Arctic Lakes. Ecosystems. doi: 10.1007/s10021-013-9701-0.

Tartowski, S. L. and R. W. Howarth. 2013. Nitrogen, Nitrogen Cycle. In: Levin, S. A. (ed) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity (Second Edition). Elsevier. pp 537–546.

Bettez, N. D., R. Marino, R. W. Howarth, and E. a. Davidson. 2013. Roads as nitrogen deposition hot spots. Biogeochemistry 114(1-3): 149–163.

Berg, P., M. H. Long, M. Huettel, J. E. Rheuban, K. J. Mcglathery, R. W. Howarth, K. H. Foreman, A. E. Giblin, and R. Marino. 2013. Eddy correlation measurements of oxygen fluxes in permeable sediments exposed to varying current flow and light. Limnology and Oceanography 58(4): 1329–1343.

Howarth, R. W. 2013. Shale gas extraction. In: Craig, R. K., B. Pryd, J. C. Nagle, et al. (eds) The Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability: Vol. 5, Ecosystem Management and Sustainability. Berkshire. Great Barrington, MA. pp 354–359.

Howarth, R., D. Swaney, G. Billen, J. Garnier, B. Hong, C. Humborg, P. Johnes, C.-M. Mörth, and R. Marino. 2012. Nitrogen fluxes from the landscape are controlled by net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs and by climate. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10(1): 37–43.

Howarth, R. W., R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea. 2012. Venting and leakage of methane from shale gas development: Reply to Cathles et al. Climatic Change. doi:10.1007/s10584-012-0401-0.

Howarth, R. W., D. Shindell, R. Santoro, A. Ingraffea, N. Phillips, and A. Townsend-Small. 2012. Methane emissions from natural gas systems. Background paper prepared for the National Climate Assessment, Reference # 2011-003, Office of Science & Technology Policy Assessment, Washington, DC.

Hong, B., D. Swaney, C.-M. Morth, E. Smedberg, H. Eriksson Hagg, C. Humborg, R. Howarth, and F. Bouraoui. 2012. Evaluating regional variation of net anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus inputs (NANI/NAPI), major drivers, nutrient retention pattern and management implications in the multinational areas of Baltic Sea basin. Ecological Modelling 227: 117–135.

Ganju, N. K., M. Hayn, S.-N. Chen, R. W. Howarth, P. J. Dickhudt, A. L. Aretxabaleta, and R. Marino. 2012. Tidal and groundwater fluxes to a shallow, microtidal estuary: constraining inputs through field observations and hydrodynamic modeling. Estuaries and Coasts 35: 1285–1298.

Swaney, D. P., B. Hong, C. Ti, R. W. Howarth, and C. Humborg. 2012. Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs to watersheds and riverine N export to coastal waters: a brief overview. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 4(2): 203–211.

Swaney, D. P., R .L. Santoro, R. W. Howarth, B. Hong, and K. Donaghy. 2012. Historical changes in the food and water supply systems of the New York City metropolitan area. Regional Environmental Change. doi 10.1007/s10113-011-0266-1.

Davidson, E. A., M. B. David, J. N Galloway, C. L. Goodale, R. Haeuber, J. A. Harrison, R. W. Howarth, D. B. Jayne, R. R. Lowrance, B. T. Nolan, J. L. Peel, R. W. Pinder, E. Porder, C. S Snyder, A. R. Townsend, and M. H. Ward. 2012. Excess nitrogen in the U.S. environment: Trends, risks, and solution. Issues in Ecology, report #15, Ecological Society of America.

Howarth, R., W., and A. Ingraffea. 2011. Should fracking stop? Yes, it is too high risk. Nature 477: 271-273.

Howarth, R. W., R. Santoro, and A. Ingraffea.  2011.  Methane and the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas from shale formations.  Climatic Change Letters, doi: 10.1007/s10584-011-0061-5.
Translated into French by Julien Ramina (julienramina@yahoo.fr), available here.

Santoro, R., R. W. Howarth, and A. Ingraffea. 2011. Indirect emissions of carbon dioxides from Marcellus shale gas development. A technical report of the Agriculture, Energy, and Environment Program at Cornell University.

Howarth, R. R., F. Chan, D. J. D. Conley, J. Garnier, S. C. Doney, R. R. Marino, and G. Billen. 2011. Coupled biogeochemical cycles: eutrophication and hypoxia in temperate estuaries and coastal marine ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(1): 18–26.

Billen, G., M. Silvestre, B. Grizzetti, A. Leip, J. Garnier, M. Voss, R. Howarth, F. Bouraoui, A. Lepistö, P. Kortelainen, P. Johnes, C. Curtis, C. Humborg, E. Smedberg, Ø. Kaste, R. Ganeshram, A. Beusen, and C. Lancelot. 2011. Nitrogen flows from European regional watersheds to coastal marine waters. In: Sutton, M. A., C. M. Howard, J. W. Erisman, et al. (eds) The European Nitrogen Assessment. Cambridge University Press. pp 271–297.

Grizzetti, B., F. F. Bouraoui, G. Billen, H. Van Grinsven, A. C. Cardoso, V. Thieu, J. Garnier, C. Curtis, R. Howarth, P. Johnes, and H. Van Grinsven. 2011. Nitrogen as a threat to European water quality. In: Sutton, M. A., C. M. Howard, J. W. Erismann, et al. (eds) The European Nitrogen Assessment. Cambridge University Press. pp 379–404.

Hong, B., D. D. P. Swaney, and R. W. R. Howarth. 2011. A toolbox for calculating net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI). Environmental Modelling and Software 26(5): 623–633.

McLenaghan, N. A., A. C. Tyler, U. H. Mahl, R. W. Howarth, and R. M. Marino. 2011. Benthic macroinvertebrate functional diversity regulates nutrient and algal dynamics in a shallow estuary. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 426: 171-184.

Baojing Gu, Yimei Zhu, Jie Chang, Chanhui Peng, Dong Liu, Yong Min, Weidong Luo, R. W. Howarth, and Y. Ge. 2011. The role of technology and policy in mitigating regional nitrogen pollution. Environmental. Research Letters 6: 014011.

Townsend, A. and R. W. Howarth. 2010. Fixing the global nitrogen problem. Scientific American 302 (#2, Feb 2010): 64-71.
Also available in Chinese here.

Howarth, R. W. 2010. Solutions to environmental threats: Nitrogen cycle. Scientific American 302 (#4, April 2010): 58.

Johnson, P. T. J., A. R. Townsend, C. C. Cleveland, P. M. Glibert, R. W. Howarth, V. J. McKenzie, E. Rejmankova, and M. H. Ward. 2010. Linking environmental nutrient enrichment and disease emergence in humans and wildlife. Ecological Applications 20(1): 16–29..

Howarth, R. W. 2010. Celebrating 100 volumes. Biogeochemistry 100: 1-2.

Najjar, R. G., C. R. Pyke, M. B. Adams, D. Breitburg, C. Hershner, M. Kemp, R. Howarth, M. R. Mulholland, M. Paolisso, D. Secor, K. Sellner, D. Wardrop, and R. Wood. 2010. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 86(1): 1–20.

Dale, V. H., C. L. Kling, J. L. Meyer, et al. 2010. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Springer. 284p.

Davidson, E. a., K. E. Savage, N. D. Bettez, R. Marino, and R. W. Howarth. 2009. Nitrogen in runoff from residential roads in a coastal area. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 210(1-4): 3–13.

Conley, D., H. Paerl, R. Howarth, D. Boesch, S. Seitzinger, K. Havens, C. Lancelot, and G. Likens. 2009. Controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus. Science 323: 1014–1015.

Conley, D. J, H. W. Paerl, R. W. Howarth, D. F. Boesch, S. P. Seitzinger, K. E. Havens, C. Lancelot, and G. E. Likens. 2009. Reply to comments on "controlling eutrophication: nitrogen and phosphorus." Science 324: 724-725.

Boesch, D., W. Boynton, L. Crowder, R. Diaz, R. Howarth, L. Mee, S. Nixon, N. Rabalais, R. Rosenberg, J. Sanders, D. Scavia, and R. Turner. 2009. Nutrient enrichment drives Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. EOS 90(14): 117–128.

Bringezu, S., H. Schutz, M. O’Brien, L. Kauppi, R. Howarth, and J. McNeely. 2009. Towards sustainable production and use of resources: Assessing biofuels. International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management, United Nations Environment Program, Paris, France.

Howarth, R. W., and S. Bringezu (eds). 2009. Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use. Proceedings of the International SCOPE Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, International Council of Science.

Howarth, R.W., S. Bringezu, M. Bekunda, C. de Fraiture, L. Maene, L. Martinelli, O. Sala. 2009. Rapid assessment on biofuels and environment: Overview and key findings. Pages 1-13 in R.W. Howarth and S. Bringezu (eds), Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use. Proceedings of the International SCOPE Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, International Council of Science.

Howarth, R.W., S. Bringezu, L.A. Martinelli, R. Santoro, D. Messem, O.E. Sala. 2009. Introduction: biofuels and the environment in the 21st century. Pages 15- 36, in R.W. Howarth and S. Bringezu (eds) Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use. Proceedings of the International SCOPE Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, International Council of Science.

Simpson, T.W., L.A. Martinelli, A.N. Sharpley, R.W. Howarth. 2009. Impact of ethanol production on nutrient cycles and water quality: the United States and Brazil as case studies. Pages 153-167 in R.W. Howarth and S. Bringezu (eds) Biofuels: Environmental Consequences and Interactions with Changing Land Use. Proceedings of the International SCOPE Biofuels Project Rapid Assessment, International Council of Science.

Howarth, R. W. 2009. Nitrogen. In: G. E. Likens (ed), Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, Volume 2. Elsevier, Oxford. pp 57–64.

Marino, R. and R. W. Howarth. 2009. Nitrogen fixation. In: G. E. Likens (ed), Encyclopedia of Inland Waters, Volume 2. Elsevier. Oxford. pp 65–72.

Townsend, A. R., L. A. Martinelli, and R. W. Howarth. 2009. The global nitrogen cycle, biodiversity, and human health. Pages 159-178 in O. E. Sala, L. A Meyerson, and C. Parmeson. Biodiveristy Change and Human Health. SCOPE #69. Island Press, Washington.

Entringer, R., and R. Howarth. 2009. Workshop on Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen -- Chesapeake Bay Program Science and Technical Advisory Committee. January 8, 2009. STAC Publication 09-001.

Howarth, R. and H. W. Paerl. 2008. Coastal marine eutrophication: control of both nitrogen and phosphorus is necessary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(49): E103.

Howarth, R. W. 2008. Coastal nitrogen pollution: a review of sources and trends globally and regionally. Harmful Algae 8(1): 14–20.

Boyer, E. W. and R. W. Howarth. 2008. Nitrogen fluxes from rivers to the coastal oceans. In: D. Capone, D. A. Bronk, M. R. Mulholland, and E. J. Carpenter (eds), Nitrogen in the marine environment, 2nd Edition. Elsevier. Oxford. pp 1565–1587.

Swaney, D., D. Scavia, R. Howarth, and R. Marino. 2008. Estuarine classification and response to nitrogen loading: Insights from simple ecological models. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 77(2): 253–263.

Simpson, T. W., A. N. Sharpley, R. W. Howarth, H. W. Paerl, and K. R. Mankin. 2006. The new gold rush: fueling ethanol production while protecting water quality. Journal of Environmental Quality 37(2): 318–324.

Glibert, P. M., R. Azanza, M. Burford, et al. 2008. Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56(6): 1049–1056.

Pyke, C. R., R. G. Najjar, M. B. Adams, D. Breitburg, M. Kemp, C. Hershner, R. Howarth, M. Mulholland, M. Paolisso, D. Secor, K. Sellner, D. Wardrop, and R. Wood. 2008. Climate change and the Chesapeake Bay: State-of-the-science review and recommendations. A report of the Chesapeake Bay Program Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC), Annapolis, MD. 59p.

Howarth, R. W. 2008. Estimating atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Northeastern United States: Relevance to Narragansett Bay. In: Desbonnet A and Cost-Pierce BA (eds) Science of Ecosystem-Based Management. Springer. New York. pp 47–65.

Davidson, E. A. and R. W. Howarth. 2007. Nutrients in synergy. Ecology Letters 449(12): 1135–42.

Gettel, G. M., A. E. Giblin, and R. W. Howarth. 2007. The effects of grazing by the snail, Lymnaea elodes, on benthic N-2 fixation and primary production in oligotrophic, arctic lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 52(6): 2398–2409.

Hambright, K. D., N. G. Hairston, W. R. Schaffner, and R. W. Howarth. 2007. Grazer control of nitrogen fixation: synergisms in the feeding ecology of two freshwater crustaceans. Fundamental and Applied Limnology / Archiv für Hydrobiologie 170(2):89–101.

Hambright, K. D., N. G. Hairston, W. R. Schaffner, and R. W. Howarth. 2007. Grazer control of nitrogen fixation: phytoplankton taxonomic composition and ecosystem functioning. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 170(2): 103–124.

Turner, R. E., N. N. Rabalais, R. B. Alexander, G. McIsaac, and R. W. Howarth. 2007. Characterization of nutrient, organic carbon, and sediment loads and concentrations from the Mississippi River into the northern Gulf of Mexico. Estuaries and Coasts 30: 773-790.

Howarth, R. W. R. and R. Marino. 2006. Nitrogen as the limiting nutrient for eutrophication in coastal marine ecosystems: Evolving views over three decades. Limnology and Oceanography 51(1): 25–376.

Martinelli, L. A. and R. W. Howarth. 2006. Nitrogen cycling in the Americas: Natural and anthropogenic influences and controls. Springer. Dordrecht. 427p.

Howarth, R. W., D. P. Swaney, E. W. Boyer, R. Marino, N. Jaworski, and C. Goodale. 2006. The influence of climate on average nitrogen export from large watersheds in the Northeastern United States. Biogeochemistry 79: 163–186.

Chapin, F. S., G. M. Woodwell, J. Randerson, G. Lovett, D. Baldocchi, D. A. Clark, M. E. Harmon, E. Rastetter, D. Schimel, R. Valentini, C. Wirth, J. Cole, M. Goulden, J. Harden, M. Heimann, R. Howarth, et al. 2006. Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methods. Ecosystems 9(7): 1041–1050.

Martinelli, L. A., R. W. Howarth, E. Cuevas, S. Filoso, A. T. Austin, L. Donoso, V. Huszar, D. Keeney, L. L. Lara, C. Llerena, G. McIssac, E. Medina, J. Ortiz-Zayas, D. Scavia, D. W. Schindler, D. Soto, and A. Townsend. 2006. Sources of reactive nitrogen affecting ecosystems in Latin America and the Caribbean: current trends and future perspectives. Biogeochemistry 79(1-2): 3–24.

Filoso, S., L. A. Martinelli, R. W. Howarth, E. W. Boyer, and F. Dentener. 2006. Human activities changing the nitrogen cycle in Brazil. Biogeochemistry 79(1-2): 61–89.

Marino, R., F. Chan, R. Howarth, M. Pace, and G. Likens. 2006. Ecological constraints on planktonic nitrogen fixation in saline estuaries. 1. Nutrient and trophic controls. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309: 25–39.

Chan, F., R. Marino, R. Howarth, and M. Pace. 2006. Ecological constraints on planktonic nitrogen fixation in saline estuaries. 2. Grazing controls on cyanobacterial population dynamics. Marine Ecology Progress Series 309: 41–53.

Joye, S. B., V. H. Smith, R. W. Howarth, R. W. Bachmann, J. E. Cloern, R. E. Hecky, and D. W. Schindler (eds). 2006. Eutrophication of Freshwater and Marine Ecosystems. Limnology and Oceanography (special issue) Vol. 51, No 1, Part 2.

Roberts, B. J. and R. W. Howarth. 2006. Nutrient and light availability regulate the relative contribution of autotrophs and heterotrophs to respiration in freshwater pelagic ecosystems. Limonology And Oceanography 51(1): 288–298.

Howarth, R. W., R. Marino, D. P. Swaney, and E. W. Boyer. 2006. Wastewater and watershed influences on primary productivity and oxygen dynamics in the lower Hudson River Estuary. Pages 121-139 in: J. S. Levinton and J. R. Waldman (eds), The Hudson River Estuary. Cambridge University Press.

Howarth, R. W. 2006. Atmospheric deposition and nitrogen pollution in coastal marine ecosystems. Pages 97-116 in G. R. Visgilio and D. M. Whitelaw (eds), Acid in the Environment: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects. Springer, NY.

Boyer, E. W., R. W. Howarth, J. N. Galloway, F. J. Dentener, P. A. Green, and C. J. Vörösmarty. 2006. Riverine nitrogen export from the continents to the coasts. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20(1): GB1S91.

Howarth, R., K. Ramakrishna, E. Choi, R. Elmgren, L. Martinelli, A. Mendoza, W. Moomaw, C. Palm, R. Boy, M. Scholes, and Z. Zhao-Liang. 2005. Nutrient Management, Responses Assessment. Ecosystems and Human Well-being, Volume 3, Policy Responses. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press. Washington, D.C. pp 295–311.

Howarth, R. W. 2005. The development of policy approaches for reducing nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the USA. Science in China Series C Life Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences 48: 791–806.

Boyer, E. W., R. W. Howarth, J. N. Galloway, F. J. Dentener, C. Cleveland, G. P. Asner, P. Green, and C. Vorosmarty. 2004. Current nitrogen inputs to world regions. Pages 221-230 in A. R. Mosier, J. K. Syers and J. R. Freney (eds), Agriculture and the nitrogen cycle: Assessing the impacts of fertilizer use on food production and the environment. SCOPE #65. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Galloway, J., F. Dentener, D. Capone, E. Boyer, R. Howarth, S. Seitzinger, G. Asner, C. Cleveland, P. Green, E. Holland, D. Karl, A. Michaels, J. Porter, A. Townsend, and C. Vorosmarty. 2004. Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry 70: 153–226.

Chan, F., M. L. Pace, R. W. Howarth, and R. M. Marino. 2004. Bloom formation in heterocystic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria: The dependence on colony size and zooplankton grazing. Limonology And Oceanography 49(6): 2171–2178.

David, M. B., G. F. McIsaac, R. W. Howarth, C. L. Goodale, & L. E. Drinkwater. 2004. Fertilizer: Complex Issue Calls for Informed Debate. Nature 427: 99.

Howarth, R. W., R. Marino & D. Scavia. 2003. Priority Topics for Nutrient Pollution in Coastal Waters: An Integrated National Research Program for the United States. National Ocean Service, NOAA, Silver Spring, MD.

Townsend, A. R., R. W. Howarth, F. A. Bazzaz, M. S. Booth, C. C. Cleveland, S. K. Collinge, A. P. Dobson, P. R. Epstein, E. A. Holland, D. R. Keeney, M. A. Mallin, C. A. Rogers, P. Wayne, and A. H. Wolfe. 2003. Human health effects of a changing global nitrogen cycle. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1(5): 240–246.

Galloway, J. N., J. D. Aber, J. W. Erisman, S. P. Seitzinger, R. W. Howarth, E. B. Cowling, and B. J. Cosby. 2003. The Nitrogen Cascade. BioScience 53(4): 341–356.

Marino, R., R. W. Howarth, F. Chan, J. J. Cole, and G. E. Likens. 2003. Sulfate inhibition of molybdenum-dependent nitrogen fixation by planktonic cyanobacteria under seawater conditions: a non-reversible effect. Hydrobiologia 500(1-3): 277–293.

Howarth, R. W. 2004. Human acceleration of the nitrogen cycle: drivers, consequences, and steps toward solutions. Water Science and Technology 49(5-6): 7–13.

Austin, A., R. W. Howarth, J. S. Baron, F. S. Chapin, T. R. Christensen, E. A. Holland, M. V. Ivanov, A. Y. Lein, L. Z. Martinelli, J. M. Melillo, and Chao Shang. 2003. Human disruption of element interactions: Drivers, consequences, and trends for the 21st Century. Pages 15-45 in Melillo, J. M., C. B. Field & B. Moldan (eds), Interactions of the Major Biogeochemical Cycles: Global Change and Human Impacts. SCOPE #61. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Howarth, R. W. 2003. Coastal ecosystems. Pages 65-74 in J. C. White & J. Teninko (eds), Acid Rain: Are the Problems Solved? American Fisheries Society Trends in Fisheries Science and Management 2, Bethesda, MD.

Howarth, R. and D. Rielinger. 2003. Nitrogen from the atmosphere: Understanding and reducing a major cause of degradation of our coastal waters. Science and Policy Bulletin #8, Waquoit Bay Estuarine Research Reserve, NOAA.

Howarth, R. W., E. W. Boyer, W. J. Pabich, and J. N. Galloway. 2002. Nitrogen use in the United States from 1961-2000 and potential future trends. Ambio 31(2): 88–96.

Howarth, R. W., D. Walker and A. Sharpley. 2002. Sources of nitrogen pollution to coastal waters of the United States. Estuaries 25: 656-676.

Howarth, R. W. 2002. Nutrient over-enrichment of coastal waters in the United States: Steps toward a solution. Pew Oceans Commission, Washington, DC.

Howarth, R. W. 2002. The nitrogen cycle. Pages 429-435 in H. A. Mooney and J. G. Canadell (eds), Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change. Vol. 2, the Earth System: Biological and Ecological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change. Wiley, Chichester.

Marino, R., F. Chan, R. W. Howarth, M. Pace, and G. E. Likens. 2002. Ecological and biogeochemical interactions constrain planktonic nitrogen fixation in estuaries. Ecosystems 5(7): 719–725.

Scavia, D., J. C. Field, D. F. Boesch, R. W. Buddemeier, V. Burkett, D. R. Cayan, M. Fogarty, M. A. Harwell, R. W. Howarth, C. Mason, D. J. Reed, T. C. Royer, A. H. Sallenger, and J. G. Titus. 2002. Climate change impacts on US coastal and marine ecosystems. Estuaries 25(2): 149–164.

Boyer, E. W. and R. W. Howarth (eds). 2002. The Nitrogen Cycle at Regional to Global Scales. Kluwer, Dordrecht. 519pp.

Vitousek, P. M., K. E. N. Cassman, C. Cleveland, C. B. Field, and N. B. Grimm. 2002. Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry 57&58: 1–45.

Van Breemen, N., E. W. Boyer, C. L. Goodale, N. A. Jaworski, K. Paustian, S. P. Seitzinger, K. Lajtha, B. Mayer, D. Van Dam, R. W. Howarth, K. J. Nadelhoffer, M. Eve, and G. Billen. 2002. Where did all the nitrogen go? Fate of nitrogen inputs to large watersheds in the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 57(1): 267–293.

Seitzinger, S. P., R. V Styles, E. W. Boyer, R. B. Alexander, G. Billen, R. W. Howarth, B. Mayer, and N. Van Breemen. 2002. Nitrogen retention in rivers: model development and application to watersheds in the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 57&58(1): 199–237.

Boyer, E. W., C. L. Goodale, N. A. Jaworski, and R. W. Howarth. 2002. Anthropogenic nitrogen sources and relationships to riverine nitrogen export in the northeastern USA. Biogeochemistry 57(1): 137–169.

Mayer, B., E. W. Boyer, N. A. Jaworski, N. van Breemen, R. W. Howarth, S. Seitzinger, G. Billen, K. Lajtha, K. Nadelhoffer, D. van Dam, L. J. Hetling, M. Nosal, and K. Paustian. 2002. Sources of nitrate in rivers draining sixteen watersheds in the northeastern U. S.: Isotopic constraints. Biogeochemistry 57&58: 171–197.

Barron, S., C. F. Weber, R. Marino, E. A. Davidson, G. Tomasky, and R. W. Howarth. 2002. Effects of varying salinity on phytoplankton growth in a low-salinity coastal pond under two nutrient conditions. Biological Bulletin 203: 260‑261.

Weber, C. F., S. Barron, R. Marino, R. W. Howarth, G. Tomasky, and E. A. Davidson. 2002. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton growth in Vineyard Sound and Oyster Pond, Falmouth, Massachusetts. The Biological Bulletin 203(2): 261–263.

Tilman, D., J. Fargione, B. Wolff, C. D’Antonio, A. Dobson, R. Howarth, D. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, D. Simberloff, and D. Swackhamer. 2001. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292: 281–284.

Howarth, R. W. 2001. Hypoxia, fertilizer, and the Gulf of Mexico. Science 292: 1485-1486.

Howarth, R., D. Anderson, J. Cloern, C. Elfring, C. Hopkinson, B. Lapointe, T. Malone, N. Marcus, K. McGlathery, A. Sharpley, and D. Walker. 2000. Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas. Issues in Ecology 7(7): 1–15.

National Research Council. 2000. Clean coastal waters: Understanding and reducing the effects of nutrient pollution. National Academy Press, Washington, DC (report from National Academy of Sciences Committee chaired by Howarth).

Howarth, R. W., D. P. Swaney, T. J. Butler, and R. Marino. 2000. Climatic control on eutrophication of the Hudson River Estuary. Ecosystems 3(2): 210–215.

Tartowski, S. and R. W. Howarth. 2000. Nitrogen, nitrogen cycling. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. 4: 377-388.

Sala, O. E., R. B. Jackson, H. A. Mooney, and R. W. Howarth. 2000. Methods in Ecosystem Science. Library Springer. 421pp.

Howarth, R.W. & A. F. Michaels. 2000. The measurement of primary production in aquatic ecosystems. Pages 72-85 in: O. Sala, R. Jackson, H. Mooney, and R. W. Howarth (eds), Methods in Ecosystem Science, Springer, NY.

Howarth, R. W., N. Jaworski, D. Swaney, A. Townsend and G. Billen. 2000. Some approaches for assessing human influences on fluxes of nitrogen and organic carbon to estuaries. Pages 17-41 in: J. E. Hobbie (ed.), Estuarine Synthesis: The Next Decade. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Fisher, T. R., D. Correll, R. Costanza, J. T. Hollibaugh, C. S. Hopkinson, R. W. Howarth, N. N. Rabalais, J. E. Richey, C. Vorosmarty and R. Wiegert. 2000. Synthesizing drainage basin inputs to coastal systems. Pages 81-101 in: J. E. Hobbie (ed.), Estuarine Synthesis: The Next Decade. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Howarth, R. W. 2000. Review of "Estuary restoration and maintenance: the National Estuary Program" by M . J . Kennish. Limnology and Oceanography 45(8): 1889.

Howarth, R. W., F. Chan, and R. Marino. 1999. Do top-down and bottom-up controls interact to exclude nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria from the plankton of estuaries? An exploration with a simulation model. Biogeochemistry 46(1-3): 203–231.

Downing, J. A., M. Mcclain, R. Twilley, J. M. Melack, J. Elser, N. N. Rabalais, W. M. Lewis, R. E. Turner, J. Corredor, D. Soto, A. Yanez-Arancibia, J. a. Kopaska, and R. W. Howarth. 1999. The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-cycle of tropical aquatic ecosystems: Current conditions and projected changes. Biogeochemistry 46(1-3): 109–148.

Corredor, J.E., R. W. Howarth, R. R. Twilley, and J. M. Morell. Nitrogen cycling and anthropogenic impact in the tropical inter-American seas. Biogeochemistry 46: 163-178.

Howarth, R. W. and R. Marino. 1999. Oil spills: Containment and clean-up. Pages 456-458 in D. E. Alexander & R. W. Fairbridge (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Science. Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Swaney, D. P., R. W. Howarth, and T. J. Butler. 1999. A novel approach for estimating ecosystem production and respiration in estuaries: Application to the oligohaline and mesohaline Hudson River. Limonology And Oceanography 44(6): 1509–1521.

Cleveland, C. C., A. R. Townsend, D. S. Schimel, H. Fisher, R. W. Howarth, L. O. Hedin, S. S. Perakis, E. F. Latty, J. C. Von Fischer, A. Elseroad, and M. F. Wasson. 1999. Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N-2) fixation in natural ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 13(2): 623–645.

Howarth, R. W. and R. Marino. 1998. A mechanistic approach to understanding why so many estuaries and brackish waters are nitrogen limited. In: Effects of Nitrogen in the Aquatic Environment (pages 117-136), KVA Report 1998: 1, Kungl. Vetenskapsakademien (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences), Stockholm.

Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley, and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8: 559-568.

Carpenter, S. R., N. F. Caraco, D. L. Correll, R. W. Howarth, A. N. Sharpley, and V. H. Smith. 1998. Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecological Applications 8(3): 559–568.

Sherman, R. E., T. J. Fahey, and R. W. Howarth. 1998. Soil-plant interactions in a neotropical mangrove forest: iron, phosphorus and sulfur dynamics. Oecologia 115(4): 553–563.

Jensen, H. S., K. J. McGlathery, R. Marino, and R. W. Howarth. 1998. Forms and availability of sediment phosphorus in carbonate sand of Bermuda seagrass beds. Limonology And Oceanography 43(5): 799–810.

Howarth, R. 1998. An assessment of human influences on fluxes of nitrogen from the terrestrial landscape to the estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 52(2-3): 213–223.

Breitburg, D. L., J. Baxter, C. Hatfield, T. W. Howarth, C. G. Jones, G. M. Lovett, and C. Wigand. 1998. Understanding effects of multiple stressors: Ideas and challenges. Pages 416-431 in M. Pace and P. Groffman (eds.), Success, Limitations, and Frontiers in Ecosystem Science, Springer, NY.

Vitousek, P. M., J. Aber, R. W. Howarth, G. E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D. W. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, and G. D. Tilman. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: causes and consequences. Issues in Ecology 1(1): 1–15.

Vitousek, P.M., J. Aber, S. E. Bayley, R. W. Howarth, G. E. Likens, P. A. Matson, D. W. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, and G. D. Tilman. 1997. Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: Causes and consequences. Ecological Applications 7: 737-750.

Jaworski, N. A., R. W. Howarth, and L. J. Hetling. 1997. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides onto the landscape contributes to coastal eutrophication in the Northeast United States. Environmental Science & Technology 31(7): 1995–2004.

Moore, M. V, M. L. Pace, J. R. Mather, P. S. Murdoch, R. W. Howarth, C. L. Folt, C. Y. Chen, H. F. Hemond, P. A. Flebbe, and C. T. Driscoll. 1997. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic Region. Hydrological Processes 11(8): 925–947.

Jaworski, N. A. and R. W. Howarth. 1996. Preliminary estimates of the pollutant loads and fluxes into the northeast shelf LME. Pages 351-357 in K. Sherman, N. A. Jaworski & T. J. Smayda (eds.), The Northeast Shelf Ecosystem: Assessment, Sustainability, and Management. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA..

Howarth, R. W., G. Billen, D. Swaney, A. Townsend, N. Jaworski, K. Lajtha, J. Downing, R. Elmgren, N. Caraco, T. Jordan, F. Berendse, J. Freney, V. Kudeyarov, P. Murdoch, and Z. Zhao-Liang. 1996. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35(1): 75–139.

Galloway, J., R. Howarth, A. Michaels, S. Nixon, J. Prospero, and F. Dentener. 1996. Nitrogen and phosphorus budgets of the North Atlantic Ocean and its watershed. Biogeochemistry 35(1): 3–25.

Howarth, R. W. (ed.). 1996. Nitrogen Cycling in the North Atlantic Ocean and its Watersheds. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht. 304 pages.

Howarth, R. W., R. Schneider, and D. Swaney. 1996. Metabolism and organic carbon fluxes in the tidal, freshwater Hudson River. Estuaries 19: 848-865.

Swaney, D. P., D. Sherman, and R. W. Howarth. 1996. Modeling water, sediment and organic carbon discharges in the Hudson-Mohawk Basin: Coupling to terrestrial sources. Estuaries 19(4): 833.

Howarth, R. W., H. Jensen, R. Marino, and H. Postma. 1995. Transport to and processing of phosphorus in near-shore and oceanic waters. Pages 323-345 in H. Tiessen (ed.), Phosphorus in the Global Environment, SCOPE #54. Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Fisher, T. R., J. M. Melack, J. U. Grobbelaar, and R. W. Howarth. 1995. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton and eutrophication of inland, estuarine, and marine waters. Pages 301-322 in H. Tiessen (ed.), Phosphorus in the Global Environment, SCOPE #54. Wiley & Sons, Chichester.

Howarth, R. W., D. Swaney, R. Marino, T. Butler, and C. R. Chu. 1995. Turbulence does not prevent nitrogen fixation by plankton in estuaries and coastal seas. Reply to the comment of Paerl et al. Limnology and Oceanography 40(3): 639–643.

McGlathery, K. J., R. Marino, and R. W. Howarth. 1994. Variable rates of phosphate uptake by shallow marine carbonate sediments: Mechanisms and ecological significance. Biogeochemistry 25(2): 127–146.

Schaffner, W., N. Hairston Jr, and R. Howarth. 1994. Feeding rates and filament clipping by crustacean zooplankton consuming cyanobacteria. Verhandlungen der Internationale Vereinigung fur Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie 25: 2375–2381.

Howarth, R. W. Microbial processes in salt-marsh sediments. 1993. Pages 239-259 in T. E. Ford (ed.), Aquatic Microbiology: An Ecological Approach. Blackwell, Oxford.

Howarth, R. W. 1993. The role of nutrients in Coastal Waters. Appendix A in: Managing Wastewater in Coastal Urban Areas (pp. 137-158). Report of the Committee on Alternatives for Wastewater Management in Coastal Urban Areas, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Cole, J. J., J. M. Lane, R. Marino, and R. W. Howarth. 1993. Molybdenum assimilation by cyanobacteria and phytoplankton in freshwater and salt water. Limonology and Oceanography 38(1): 25–35.

Howarth, R. W. 1993. River sciences: A review of the rivers handbook, vol. a, hydrological and ecological principles. BioScience 43: 17-21.

Howarth, R. W., T. Butler, K. Lunde, D. Swaney, and C. R. Chu. 1993. Turbulence and planktonic nitrogen fixation: A mesocosm experiment. Limnology and Oceanography 38(8): 1696–1711.

Marino, R. and R. W. R. Howarth. 1993. Atmospheric oxygen exchange in the Hudson River: Dome measurements and comparison with other natural waters. Estuaries and Coasts 16(3): 433–445.

Howarth, R. W. & J. W. B. Stewart. 1992. The interactions of sulphur with other element cycles. Pages 67-79 in: R. W. Howarth, J. W. B. Stewart, and M. V. Ivanov (eds), Sulphur Cycling on the Continents: Wetlands, Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Associated Water Bodies. SCOPE #48. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K.

Howarth, R.W., J. W. B. Stewart, and M. V. Ivanov (eds). 1992. Sulphur Cycling on the Continents: Wetlands, Terrestrial Ecosystems, and Associated Water Bodies. SCOPE #48. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, U.K. 350 pages.

McGlathery, K. J., R. W. Howarth, and R. Marino. 1992. Nutrient Limitation of the macroalga, Penicillus capitatus, associated with subtropical seagrass meadows in Bermuda. Estuaries 15(1): 18–25.

Howarth, R. W. 1992. Indirect effects of sulfur on the carbon cycle of aquatic ecosystems: Molybdenum availability, planktonic nitrogen fixation, and nitrogen limitation. In E. T . Degens, S. Kempe, A. Lein, and Y. Soroken, (eds) Interactions of Biogeochemical Cycles in Aqueous Ecosystems. Proceedings of SCOPE/UNEP workshop at Listvyanka/Irkutsk, USSR, September 2-8, 1988. University of Hamburg.

Giblin, A. E., G. E. Likens & R. W. Howarth. 1992. The importance of reduced inorganic sulfur to the sulfur cycle of lakes. In E. T . Degens, S. Kempe, A. Lein, and Y. Soroken, (eds) Interactions of Biogeochemical Cycles in Aqueous Ecosystems. Proceedings of SCOPE/UNEP workshop at Listvyanka/Irkutsk, USSR, September 2-8, 1988. University of Hamburg.

Howarth, R. W., R. Marino, R. Garritt, and D. Sherman. 1992. Ecosystem respiration and organic carbon processing in a large, tidally influenced river: the Hudson River. Biogeochemistry 16(2): 83–102.

Vitousek, P. and R. Howarth. 1991. Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: How can it occur? Biogeochemistry 13(2): 87–115.

Howarth, R. W. and R. Marino. 1991. Oil and water-- a bad mix. Pages 40-53 in: Science Year. World Book Encyclopedia, Chicago.

Howarth, R. W., J. R. Fruci, and D. Sherman. 1991. Inputs of sediment and carbon to an estuarine ecosystem: influence of land use. Ecological Applications 1(1): 27–39.

Kitchell, J. F., S. R. Carpenter, S. Bayley, K. C. Ewel, R. W. Howarth, S. W. Nixon, and D. W. Schindler. 1991. Aquatic ecosystem experiments in the context of global climate change: working group report. In: H. Mooney et al. (eds), Ecosystem Experiments. SCOPE #45, John Wiley and Sons, Chinchester, U.K.

Howarth, R. W. 1991. Assessing the ecological effects of oil pollution from outer continental shelf oil development. Tran. of American Fisheries Society 11: 1-8.

Howarth, R. W. 1991. Comparative responses of aquatic ecosystems to toxic chemical stress. Comparative analysis of ecosystems Patterns Mechanisms and Theories. Springer-Verlag. pp 169–195.

Morin, A., K. D. Hambright, N. G. Hairston, Jr., D. M. Sherman, and R. W. Howarth. 1991. Consumer control of gross primary production in replicate freshwater ponds. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 24: 1512-1516.

Howarth, R. W. and R. Marino. 1991. Oil in the Oceans. Greenpeace, London.

Giblin, A. E., G. E. Likens, and R. W. Howarth. 1991. Sulfur storage and alkalinity generation in New England lake sediments (reply to comment from Stauffer). Limnology and Oceanography 36(6): 1265–1271.

Muramoto, J. A., S. Honjo, B. Fry, B. J. Hay, R. W. Howarth, and J. L. Cisne. 1991. Sulfur, iron and organic carbon fluxes in the Black Sea: Sulfur isotopic evidence for origin of sulfur fluxes. Deep Sea Research Part A Oceanographic Research Papers 38, Supple(0): S1151–S1187.

Giblin, A. E., G. E. Likens, D. White, and R. W. Howarth. 1990. Sulfur storage and alkalinity generation in New England lake sediments. Limonology And Oceanography 35(4): 852–869.

Marino, R., R. W. Howarth, J. Shamess, and E. Prepas. 1990. Molybdenum and sulfate as controls on the abundance of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in saline lakes in Alberta. Limonology And Oceanography 35(2): 245–259.

Howarth, R. W. and R. Marino. 1990. Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in the plankton of lakes and estuaries (reply to the comment of Smith). Limnology and Oceanography 35(8): 1859–1863.

Howarth, R. W., J. Boreman, G. Colvin, C. Decker, S. Findlay, J., Levinton, R. Malouf, J. Waldman, and P Woodhead. 1990. Report of the working group on "ecosystems and fisheries". Pages. 24-37 in: A Research Program for the Hudson River Estuary. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. No. 3-1990.

Howarth, R. W. 1989. Determining the ecological effects of oil pollution in marine ecosystems. In S. A. Levin, M. A. Harwell, J. R. Kelly, and K. D. Kimball, (eds) Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Howarth, R. W., R. Marino, J. Lane, and J. J. Cole. 1988. Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 1. Rates and importance. Limnology and Oceanography 33: 669–687.

Howarth, R. W., R. Marino, and J. J. Cole. 1988. Nitrogen fixation in freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems. 2. Biogeochemical controls. Limnology and Oceanography 33(4): 688–701.

Lodge, D. M., J. W. Barko, D. Strayer, R. W. Howarth, J. Melack, B. Menge, G. G. Mittelbach, and J. E. Titus. 1988. Spatial heterogeneity in lake communities: The benthos and habitat interactions. Page 181-208 in S. R. Carpenter (ed), Complex Interactions in Lake Communities. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Howarth, R. W. 1988. Nutrient limitation of net primary production in marine ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19(1): 89–110.

Novelli, P. C., A. R. Michelson, M. J. Scranton, G. T. Banta, J. E. Hobbie, and R. W. Howarth. 1988. Hydrogen and acetate cycling in two sulfate reducing sediments: Buzzards Bay and Town Cove, Massachusetts. Geochem. Cosmochim. Acta 52: 2477-2486.

Peterson, B. J. and R. W. Howarth. 1987. Sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen isotopes used to trace organic matter flow in the salt-marsh estuaries of Sapelo Island, Georgia. Limonology And Oceanography 32(6): 1195–1213.

Gallagher, J. L. and R. W. Howarth. 1987. Seasonal differences in Spartina recoverable underground reserves in the Great Sippewissett Marsh in Massachusetts. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 25: 313–319.

Howarth, R. W. 1987. Potential impacts of petroleum on the biotic resources of Georges Bank. In R. Backus (ed), An Atlas of Georges Bank. M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA.

Luther, G. W., T. M. Church, A. E. Giblin, and R. W. Howarth. 1986. Speciation of dissolved sulfur in salt marshes by polarographic methods. Pages 340-355 in M. Sohn (ed.), Organic Marine Geochemistry. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.

Peterson, B. J., R. W. Howarth, and R. H. Garritt. 1986. Sulfur and carbon isotopes as tracers of salt-marsh organic matter flow. Ecology 67(4): 865–874.

Whelan, J. K., R. Oremland, M. Tarata, R. Smith, R. Howarth, and C. Lee. 1986. Evidence for sulfate reducing and methane producing microorganisms in sediments from sites 618, 619, and 622. Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project.

Cole, J. J., R. W. Howarth, S. S. Nolan, and R. Marino. 1986. Sulfate inhibition of molybdate assimilation by planktonic algae and bacteria: Some implications for the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Biogeochemistry 2: 179-196.

Peterson, B. J., R. W. Howarth, and R. H. Garritt. 1985. Multiple stable isotopes used to trace the flow of organic matter in estuarine food webs. Science 227(4692): 1361–1363.

Rowe, G. T. and R. Howarth. 1985. Early diagenesis of organic matter in sediments off the coast of Peru. Deep Sea Research Part A Oceanographic Research Papers 32(1): 43–55.

Howarth, R. W. and J. J. Cole. 1985. Molybdenum availability, nitrogen limitation, and phytoplankton growth in natural waters. Science 229(4714): 653–655.

Giblin, A. E. and R. W. Howarth. 1984. Porewater evidence for a dynamic sedimentary iron cycle in salt marshes. Limnology and Oceanography 29(1): 47–63.

Howarth, R. W. 1984. The ecological significance of sulfur in the energy dynamics of salt marsh and coastal marine sediments. Biogeochemistry 1(1): 5–27.

Howarth, R. W. 1984. Global sulfur budgets, a review of "The Global Biogeochemical Sulfur Cycle, SCOPE 19, M. B. Ivanov & J. R. Freney (eds)". Ecology 65: 1336.

Howarth, R. W. and B. B. Jorgensen. 1984. Formation of 35S-labelled elemental sulfur and pyrite in coastal marine sediments (Limfjorden and Kysing Fjord, Denmark) during short-term 35SO42- reduction measurements. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 48(9): 1807–1818.

Howarth, R. W. and R. Marino. 1984. Sulfate reduction in salt marshes, with some comparisons to sulfate reduction in microbial mats. Pages 245-263 in Y. Cohen, R. W. Castenholz & H. O. Halvorson (eds), Microbial Mats: Stromatolites. Alan R. Liss, Inc., NY.

Howarth, R. W. and S. Merkel. 1984. Pyrite formation and the measurement of sulfate reduction in salt marsh sediments. Limnology and Oceanography 29(3): 598–608.

Teal, J. M. and R. W. Howarth. 1984. Oil spill studies: a review of ecological effects. Environmental Management 8: 27-44.

Howarth, R. W. and A. Giblin. 1984. Sulfate reduction in the salt marshes at Sapelo Island, Georgia. Limnology and Oceanography 28(1): 70–82.

Howarth, R. W., A. Giblin, J. Gale, B. J. Peterson, and G. W. Luther. 1984. Reduced sulfur compounds in the pore waters of a New England salt marsh. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 35: 135-152.

Peterson, B. J., P. A. Steudler, R. W. Howarth, A. I. Friedlander, D. Juers, and F. P. Bowles. 1984. Tidal export of reduced sulfur from a salt marsh ecosystem. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 35: 153-165.

Howarth, R. W. 1982. Debunking the myth of the "inexhaustible" ocean, a review of "The Oceans: Our Last Resource" by W. Marx. Technolology Review 85: 85-86.

Howarth, R. W. and J. E. Hobbie. 1982. The regulation of decomposition and heterotrophic microbial activity in salt marsh soils. Pages 183-207 in V. S. Kennedy (ed), Estuarine Comparisons. Academic Press, NY.

Luther, G. W., A. E. Giblin, R. W. Howarth, and R. A. Ryans. 1982. Pyrite and oxidized iron mineral phases formed from pyrite oxidation in salt marsh and estuarine sediments. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 46(12): 2665–2669.

Valiela, I., B. L. Howes, R. W. Howarth, A. Giblin, K. Foreman, J. M. Teal, and J. E. Hobbie. 1982. The regulation of primary production and decomposition in a salt marsh ecosystem. Pages 151-168 in B. Gopal, R. E. Turner, R. G. Wetzel, and D. F. Whigham (eds), Wetlands: Ecology and Management. Proceedings of First International Wetlands Conference, New Delhi, India.

Howarth, R. W. 1981. Fish versus fuel: a slippery quandary. Technology Review 83: 68-77.

Howarth, R. W. 1981. Oil and fish: can they coexist? Pages 49-72 in Coast Alert: Scientists Speak Out. Friends of the Earth Publishers, San Francisco.

Howes, B. L., R. W. Howarth, J. M. Teal, and I. Valiela. 1981. Oxidation-reduction potentials in a salt marsh: Spatial patterns and interactions with primary production. Limonology And Oceanography 26(2): 350–360.

Teal, J. M. and R. W. Howarth. 1981. Biological effects of oil spills. Background paper, NAS Panel on Petroleum in the Marine Environment. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Howarth, R. W. and J. M. Teal. 1980. Energy flow in a salt marsh ecosystem: the role of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. American Naturalist 116: 862-872.

Lee, C., R. W. Howarth, and B. L. Howes. 1980. Sterols in decomposing Spartina alterniflora and the use of ergosterol in estimating the contribution of fungi to detrital nitrogen. Limnology and Oceanography 25(2): 290–303.

Peterson, B. J., R. W. Howarth, F. Lipshultz, and D. Ashendorf. 1980. Salt marsh detritus: an alternative interpretation of stable carbon isotope ratios and the fate of Spartina alterniflora. Oikos 34: 173-177.

Howarth, R. W. 1979. The role of sulfur in salt marsh metabolism. Ph.D. thesis, MIT/WHOI Joint Program (SeaGrant publ. #WHOI 79-39).

Howarth, R. W. 1979. Pyrite: Its rapid formation in a salt marsh and its importance in ecosystem metabolism. Science 203: 49–51.

Howarth, R. W. and J. M. Teal. 1979. Sulfate reduction in a New England salt marsh. Limonology and Oceanography 24(6): 999–1013.

Hall, C. A. S., R. W. Howarth, B. Moore, and C. J. Vorosmarty. 1978. Environmental impacts of industrial energy systems in the coastal zone. Annual Review of Energy 3: 395–475.

Howarth, R. W. 1978. A rapid and precise method for determining sulfate in seawater, estuarine waters, and sediment pore waters. Limnology and Oceanography 23: 1066-1069.

Howarth, R. W. and C. A. S. Hall. 1978. What do you want to do with your last 27,000 gallons of oil? Human Ecology Forum 8: 2-5.

Connor, M. S. and R.W. Howarth. 1977. Potential effects of oil production on Georges Bank communities: A review of the draft environmental impact statement of outer continental shelf oil and gas lease sale no. 42. SeaGrant publ. #WHOI 77-1.

Howarth, R. W. and S. G. Fisher. 1976. The dynamics of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus during leaf decomposition in stream micro-ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 6: 221-228.

Whitney, D., G. M. Woodwell, and R. W. Howarth. 1975. Nitrogen fixation in Flax Pond, a Long Island salt marsh. Limnology and Oceanology 20: 640-643.